Corporate Social Responsibility: Divesting From Apartheid
This study aims to emphasize the importance of companies’ Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the fulfillment of their ethical responsibility to the international community with regards to human rights and to highlight the BDS (boycott, divestment, and sanctions) movement in its call for boycotting and divesting from companies operating in Occupied Palestine. The approach used in this study is a literature review of journal articles on CSR and BDS. This research found that in conducting their business, companies must have concern for humanity. Unethical actions by companies can be widely known by the public which can result in damage to companies’ reputations which in turn can lead to financial losses. Companies should not ignore the BDS movement. This paper only discusses boycotts of and divestment from companies in occupied Palestine, and earlier in South Africa. There have been limited studies about CSR implementation related to the BDS movement.
Arendt, S., & Brettel, M. (2010). Understanding the influence of corporate social responsibility on corporate identity, image, and firm performance. Management Decision, 48(10), 1469-1492.
Arnold, D. G. (2010). Transnational corporations and the duty to respect basic human rights. Business Ethics Quarterly, 20(03), 371-399.
Barghouti, O. (2011). BDS: Boycott, divestment, sanctions: The global struggle for Palestinian rights. Haymarket Books.
Braunsberger, K., & Buckler, B. (2011). What motivates consumers to participate in boycotts: Lessons from the ongoing Canadian seafood boycott. Journal of Business Research, 64(1), 96-102.
Carroll, A. B. (1991). The pyramid of corporate social responsibility: Toward the moral management of organizational stakeholders. Business horizons, 34(4), 39-48.
Cho, S., & Hong, Y. (2009). Netizens’ evaluations of corporate social responsibility: Content analysis of CSR news stories and online readers’ comments. Public relations review, 35(2), 147-149.
Chomsky, N. (1999). Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel, and the Palestinians. South End Press.
Cook, W. (Ed.). (2010). The plight of the Palestinians: a long history of destruction. Springer.
Crowther, D., & Aras, G. (2008). Corporate social responsibility. Bookboon.
Davis, U., & Mezvinsky, N. (1975). Documents from Israel, 1967-1973: readings for a critique of Zionism. Evergreen Book Distribution.
Dowling, G. R. (1993). Developing your company image into a corporate asset. Long range planning, 26(2), 101-109.
Du, S., Bhattacharya, C. B., & Sen, S. (2010). Maximizing business returns to corporate social responsibility (CSR): The role of CSR communication. International Journal of Management Reviews, 12(1), 8-19.
Dugard, John: Israel's Crimes Are ‘Infinitely Worse’ Than in Apartheid South Africa.” Democracy Now!,
Accessed 18 Mar. 2017.
Edgar, R. R. (1990). Sanctioning apartheid. Africa World Pr.
Fromkin, D. (2001). A peace to end all peace: The fall of the Ottoman Empire and the creation of the modern Middle East. Macmillan.
Hill, C. W., & Jones, G. R. (2012). Strategic management cases: an integrated approach. Cengage Learning.
Hunger, J. D., & Wheelen, T. L. (2003). Essentials of strategic management. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
International Criminal Court. “Rome Statute of 1998.” 2011, www.icc-cpi.int/NR/rdonlyres/ADD16852-AEE9-4757-ABE7-9CDC7CF02886/283503/RomeStatutEng1.pdf . pp. 4-6
International Committee of the Red Cross. (1977). Protocols additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949: resolutions of the Diplomatic Conference: extracts from the final act of the Diplomatic Conference. International Committee of the Red Cross.
Jabotinsky, V. (1923). The iron wall (we and the Arabs). first published in Russian under the title,‘O Zheleznoi Stene’in Rassvyet, 4.
Kaegi, W. E., & Kaegi, W. E. (1995). Byzantium and the early Islamic conquests. Cambridge University Press.
Khalidi, W. (1997). Revisiting the UNGA partition resolution. Journal of Palestine Studies, 27(1), 5-21.
Kumar, R., Lamb, W. B., & Wokutch, R. E. (2002). The end of south african sanctions, institutional ownership, and the stock price performance of boycotted firms evidence on the impact of Social/Ethical investing. Business & Society, 41(2), 133-165.
Lange, D., Lee, P. M., & Dai, Y. (2011). Organizational reputation: A review. Journal of Management, 37(1), 153-184.
Lin-Hi, N., & Müller, K. (2013). The CSR bottom line: Preventing corporate social irresponsibility. Journal of Business Research, 66(10), 1928-1936.
McCarthy, J. (1990). The population of Palestine: population history and statistics of the late Ottoman period and the mandate.
McGreal, C. (2006). Brothers in arms; Israel’s secret pact with Pretoria. The Guardian, 7, 6.
Morrison, S. (2015). Organising the Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions movement: the case of the ‘We Divest’campaign. Conflict, Security & Development, 15(5), 575-593.
Mullerat, R., & Brennan, D. (2005). Corporate social responsibility: The corporate governance of the 21st century. Kluwer Law International.
Munin, N. (2015). EU Measures Toward Israeli Activities in the Occupied Territories and the BDS: A Diplomatic Achievement or a Pyrrhic Victory?. Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, 7(3), 55.
Paust, J. J. (2002). Human rights responsibilities of private corporations. Vand. J. Transnat'l L., 35, 801.
Popoli, P. (2011). Linking CSR strategy and brand image: Different approaches in local and global markets. Marketing Theory, 11(4), 419-433.
Posnikoff, J. F. (1997). Disinvestment from South Africa: They did well by doing good. Contemporary Economic Policy, 15(1), 76-86.
Prahalad, C. K., & Hammond, A. (2002). Serving the world's poor, profitably. Harvard business review, 80(9), 48-59.
Said, E. W. (1979). The question of Palestine. Vintage.
Schäfer, P. (Ed.). (2003). The Bar Kokhba war reconsidered: new perspectives on the second Jewish revolt against Rome (Vol. 100). Mohr Siebeck.
Slovo, G. (2014). An interview with Omar Barghouti. Wasafiri, 29(4), 36-41.
Stockton, R. R. (2015). The Presbyterians Divest. Middle East Policy, 22(1), 41-65.
Taylor, J. E. (2015). The Essenes, the scrolls, and the Dead Sea. Oxford University Press.
Teveth, S. (1985). Ben-Gurion and the Palestinian Arabs: from peace to war. Oxford University Press, USA.
United Nations. Geneva Convention (IV) on Civilians, 1949 - 49 - Deportations, Transfers, Evacuations, Geneva, 12 August 1949, available from: http://www.un.org/en/genocideprevention/documents/atrocity-crimes/Doc.33_GC-IV-EN.pdf
United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia. “Israeli Practices towards the Palestinian People and the Question of Apartheid.” Israeli Practices towards the Palestinian People and the Question of Apartheid, p. 5., culture.jadaliyya.com/content_images/file/Apartheid_Report_15_March_En_Final.pdf. Accessed 19 Mar. 2017.).
United Nations Economic and Social Council, Commission On Human Rights, Norms on the responsibilities of transnational corporations and other business enterprises with regard to human rights, E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/12/Rev.2 (26 August 2003), available from undocs.org/E/CN.4/Sub.2/2003/12/Rev.2.)
United Nations Human Rights Council, Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Palestinian territories occupied since 1967, A/HRC/25/67 (13 January 2014), available from undocs.org/ A/HRC/25/67.
United Nations Special Committee on Palestine, United Nations Special Committee on Palestine Report to the U.N. General Assembly, September 3, 1947, Chapter II, #164, https://unispal.un.org/DPA/DPR/unispal.nsf/0/07175DE9FA2DE563852568D3006E10F3)
Wettstein, F. (2012). Silence as complicity: Elements of a corporate duty to speak out against the violation of human rights. Business Ethics Quarterly, 22(01), 37-61.